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Physical Process Modeling

heat transfer module
ac/dc module
electromagnetic module

Physical Process Modeling

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Physical Process Modeling

Mixed and Complex
Indirect heating
Transition process

Physical Process Modeling
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Physical Process Modeling

The Physical Process Modeling team has published the book "Modeling, Design and Optimization of Electric Resistance Furnaces"
ISBN 978-954-323-456-3

The Physical Process Modeling team has published the book "Comsol Multiphysics Part I - Heat Transfer"
ISBN 978-954-20-0430-1

Physical Process Modeling
Bulgarian language:

Bulgarian language 

induction heating model

induction heating

    Abstract. The induction hardening of ferromagnetic details is widely used for his high efficiency, versatility, quality of products and the ability to precisely control the heating process. Disadvantage is that the majority of industrial induction systems are limited in capacity and frequency to the large variety of hardened details. This requires the use of inductors with shape and dimensions, providing optimal application of the advantages of this method and increasing the efficiency. To investigate the influence of the geometry of the inductor on the distribution and depth of the hardened layer is necessary to analyze the electromagnetic and thermal processes in the detail. For this purpose a computer model of the system inductor-detail is developed. Metallographic analysis on pre-hardened specimen of ferromagnetic steel was performed and the dimensions of the hardened layer were reported.

. . . .     Nowadays induction heating systems are widely used in the industry. Induction heating plays an important role in industrial heating. It can heat very accurately depths and surface areas in clean operating conditions with high power densities and short heat times. That is why they are of permanent interest to researchers in recent years.
    Flat inductor with constant step of winding has been developed as a prototype for heating up to temperature of 800-900oC for stainless steel discs for agricultural tools, having outer diameter of 600-700 mm and thickness 6 mm before the hardening. Having in mind the lack of theoretical analysis of the distribution of the electromagnetic and thermal field the requirement for the specific distribution of the temperatures has not been fulfilled. This is the motivation for the numerical and experimental modelling, for which a laboratory prototype has been created. . . . .

infrared camera induction heating

. . . .   The results are obtained for time period of 600 seconds. The following procedure was employed. The quasistationary electromagnetic problem was solved at every 10sec. taking into account the temperature dependence of the magnetic permeability and electric conductivity. As a result from the electromagnetic field analysis, the generated heat in the heated detail is obtained and used as heat source during the next 10 sec. The thermal problem was solved as nonlinear and temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity was taken into account . . . .

Impact of the geometric parameters of a cylindrical inductor on the thermal process
    This paper presents an analysis of the temperature distribution in a load while heating it by a cylindrical inductor. The practical approach considered here enables its determination through modeling of the inductor-load system and fulfilling a computational procedure. The main relationships used in solving the electromagnetic and the thermal problem are described. The basic geometric parameters to be determined are the pitch of winding of the inductor and the distance between the inductor and the load, while analyzing the relationship between them and the temperature distribution. The results thus obtained have been confirmed experimentally.

infrared camera induction heating

A comparative analysis between analytical computation, model and experiment in inductive heating of cylindrical details
    The results obtained when studying induction heating by analytical relationships do not take into consideration any alteration of parameters. A similar case is studying the details of a complex shape by modifying them into relatively simpler ones. Imprecise computations affect the distribution of electromagnetic and thermal fields, which in turn affects the quality of thermal treatment. Modeling through application of numerical methods enables studying a particular process in a particular detail without generalizing on all similar cases. Regardless of the approach, the obtained results differ from the real process because they do not account for incidental interfering factors.
    This paper offers a comparative analysis between analytical computation, model and experiment of a system of a cylindrical inductor and a load. The purpose is to determine the factors affecting the error in modeling of induction devices.

chamber resistance furnace


Modeling with System Differential Equation

    Physical Process Modeling offers to your attention a few articles on analysis and modeling of electric resistance furnaces.
Mono-Dimensional and Two-Dimensional Model
Three-Dimensional Model Of System Furnace-Heated Body
Measurement Devices     Energy Analysis Of ERF
Process Of Melting     Cooling Of The Bodies

shaft resistance furnace

shaft resistance furnace
    One of the main activities of the Physical Process Modeling team is analysis, modeling and design of thermal devices.
    This is a team specialized in design of resistance, chamber and blast furnaces. The materials published here discuss computational procedures which simulate the transitional processes of heating. While not claiming a unique approach, we suggest that the operative sequence developed by us for designer's practices affords a number of advantages, such as:
  • Fewer hours of work. The use of software developed for specific business needs exempts the designer from computational work. The time to find a required construction is shorter with a data base of modern electric-resistance furnaces (ERF) already designed.
  • Enhanced preciseness of work. There is no longer any need to deal with graphs or to account for criterial correlations when applying the suggested approach: using a model comprising a system of Differential Equation (DE), Finite Element Method (FEM) and realization by numerical methods.
  • Integral methodology of work. Suffice it to use one model and computational procedure to determine the parameters of the ERF being designed: distribution of temperature in the chamber and in the insulation, temporal parameters of the transitional process, analysis of the parameters of the regulator, energy analysis, and optimization of the construction.
  • Widely applicable design. The design thus realized could be used in the exploitation of the thermal assembly; the models developed could be incorporated into the passport of the furnace and serve for evaluation of the technological processes; they could also be used by non-specialists in designer's practice.
    The Physical Process Modeling team hopes that the materials presented by us will be useful for designers dealing with matters of this kind.

Regulation Of The Process Of Heating

    In this publication is analyzed the work of high temperature vacuum ERF with MoSi2 heaters, loaded with details with different thermal parameters and to implement of processes with given requirements by controlling different parameters of the power system.
    For analysis of transient heat processes in high temperature vacuum ERF with water cooled walls, a system of differential equations is composed corresponding to the thermal schematic and is visually modeled in MATLAB/SIMULINK.

infrared camera resistance furnace

    A system for high temperature chamber resistive furnace (CRF) with silicon carbide (SiC) heaters is proposed. It is realized with programmable logic controller (PLC) and additional microcontroller board. The purpose of the system is to allow electrothermal apparatus control, while solving an important technological problem temperature distribution inside the furnace. An experimental system is built and verified. It allows automatic control of separate SiC heaters, achieving more uniform distribution of the temperature field.

(chamber and shaft)

infrared camera resistance furnace

Regulation Of The Temperature

DEMO - working with MATLAB

Ex1 Ex2 Ex3 Ex4 Ex5 Ex6
Experiment NO NO YES NO YES NO
Demo Movies avi avi avi avi avi avi

    This paper presents an analysis of the temperature field distribution in the workspace of a high-temperature chamber-type electric resistance furnace operating on silit heaters. A methodology is suggested of how to implement a system of events ensuring the attainment of even distribution of the temperature field in the chamber. The methodology is based on numerical models and experimental studies to whose results the furnace controls are adjusted. Experimental studies were conducted under specific technological conditions, which confirmed the correctness of the methodology. The aim was to solve a major technological problem in the exploitation of similar facilities: the uneven field in the chamber due to some of its constructional specifics and the silit heaters aging.

Methodology for determining the need of reconstruction for resistive heater furnaces in order to increase their energy efficiency

    The current paper suggests a specialized methodology for determining the need, the type and the scale of reconstruction for chamber resistive heater furnaces. The objective of the reconstruction is the energy efficiency of the furnace. The methodology involves a series of steps, allowing a complete analysis of the state of the furnace where in exploitation state. The analysis involves: determining the consumed electrical energy, energy losses and the insulation condition. As a result of the study the required reconstructions can be determined as: partial or complete replacement of refractory and isolation materials, replacement of hermetic seals, constructional repairs, est. The scale of those activities is based on a complete economic analysis.

electromagnet system
electromagnet system
    Based on existing methods for electromagnetic fields analysis questions from the numerical analysis of the induction system flat inductor -detail are elaborated and these are connected with current distribution in detail and inductor. Obtained are results close to the experimental data. The used method for theoretical analysis is possible can be applied for researches of induction devices with different switching way of sections.

electromagnet system

Multiphysics model

Transient Process
Heat transfer module
AC/DC module


The video material (simulation) illustrates electric resistance furnaces control: thermal process regulation. Most of the models were made for specific tasks, and different regulators were used, such as ON/OFF or PID. The Physical Process Modeling team refrains from a detailed explanation of these simulations, but will readily answer the questions of anyone who is interested in this topic. Contact us.

Establishing of the process simulations
heat transfer

Regulation Of The Process Of Heating

Simulation 1     Simulation 2
Simulation 3     Simulation 4
Simulation 5     Simulation 6
Simulation 7     Simulation 8
Simulation 9     Simulation 10
Simulation 11     Simulation 12
Simulation 13     Simulation 14

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