HEATERS  models and experiments 
The video material (simulation) illustrates some of the transitional processes discussed in this chapter. For more information, contact us.
MOVIE1: heaters simulation 1 
MOVIE1: Foil Heaters MOVIE2: Foil Heaters MOVIE3: Foil Heaters 






PID regulator 
The PID controller can be described by the equation:
where y_{r} is the set point and y is the process output. The PID controller was originally
implemented using analog technology that went through several development stages.
Any standard transformation method can be used in the discretization of equation: The proportional part: The integral part: The integration is approximated by: which gives the following (forward euler) time discretization: 
PID regulator  simulation

Experiment 
Simulation
Heat Transfer Module. Modelling, Analysis and Design. 
Experiment 
Physical Process Modeling Resources: Mathematics Physics Electronics Programming Heat transfer 