Physical Process Modeling Physical Process Modeling - Resources Physical Process Modeling - Resources Physical Process Modeling - Resources Physical Process Modeling - Resources Physical Process Modeling - Resources



  2N...   2SA...   2SB...   2SC...   2SD...   2SJ...   2SK...

2N1613   2N1711   2N2955   2N3019   2N3055   2N3439   2N3440   2N3771   2N3772   2N3904   2N3906   2N4124   2N4126   2N4401   2N4403   2N4920   2N5038   2N5088   2N5154   2N5191   2N5192   2N5195   2N5339   2N5400   2N5401   2N5415   2N5416   2N5550   2N5551   2N5657   2N5680   2N5681   2N5884   2N5886   2N6036   2N6039   2N6050   2N6059   2N6107   2N6111   2N6284   2N6287   2N6387   2N6388   2N6487   2N6488   2N6489   2N6490   2N6668   2SA1802   2SA1930   2SA1943   2SA1962   2SA1986   2SA1987   2SC1837   2SC5171   2SC5200   2SC5242   2SC5358   2SC5359   FMB2222A   FMB2907A   MAT02   MAT03   MJ15003   MJE15028   MJE15032   MJE340   MJE350   TIP140   TIP145   TIP29   TIP2955   TIP3055   TIP31V   TIP33   TIP35   TIP36   TIP41   TIPP31  


BR100   BRY56   BRY61   BRY62   BT137   BT138   BT139   BTA04   BTA06B   BTA06BW   BTA06GP   BTA06T   BTA08B   BTA08S   BTA10B   BTA10GP   BTA12B   BTA16B   BTA25   BTA26AB   BTA40AB   BTA41AB   BTB24   T0505   T0509   T0510   T0512   T0605   T0609   T0610   T0612   T0805   T0809   T0810   T0812   T10   T12   T16   T25   T25K   T40K   TIC106   TIC108   TIC116   TIC126   TIC206   TIC216   TIC225   TIC226   TIC236   TIC246   TICP106  

74 XXX

7400   7402   7403   7404   7405   7406   7407   7408   7410   74107   7411   74112   7412   74121   74123   74125   7413   74132   74138   74139   7414   74147   74151   74158   74159   74160   74164   74165   74166   7417   74190   74192   74194   74195   7420   7421   74221   74240   74241   74242   74245   74251   74257   74259   74266   7427   74273   7428   7430   7432   74373   74374   7438   74390   74393   7442   7447   74540   74544   74545   74573   74574   74688   7473   7474   7475   7485   7486   7493  

40 XXX

4000  4007  4009  40102  40106  4011  4013  4015  4016  40160  4017  40174  40175  40192  40194  4020  4027  4028  4029  4030  4035  4040  4041  4042  4043  4046  4047  4049  4051  4060  4066  4067  4068  4069  4070  4071  4073  4077  4078  4081  4093  4098  4099  4511  4514  4518  4528  4538  4543  4555  4585  4724 



89C1051  89C2051   89C51   89C52   89C55   89INSTR   89S8252   90LS2323   90LS2343   90LS4434   90LS8535   90S1200   90S2313   90S2323   90S2343   90S4414   90S4434   90S8515   90S8535   AVRINSTR   MEGA103   MEGA103L   MEGA603   MEGA603L


12C509   12C672   12CE518   12CE519   12CE674   16C52   16C54S   16C55S   16C56S   16C57S   16C58S   16C64B   16C71   16C710   16C711   16C715   16C84   16CR54S   16CR56S   16CR57S   16CR58S   16CR83   16CR84   16F83   16F84  


8051ARCH   8051EPRO   8051HARD   8051PROG   80C31   80C32   80C451   80C550   80C552   83C451   83C550   83C552   83C750   83C751   83C752   83C754   87C451   87C550   87C552   87C652   87C750   87C751   87C752   87C754   8XC51   8XC52   8XC54   8XC58  


80515   80C515   80C515A   80C517   80C517A   80C537   83C166   83C515A  


2101   2103   2105   21061   21062   2111   2115   2161   2162   2163   2164   2171   2172   2173   2181   2185   2185L   2186   2186L   2187L   21OVER  


ST6208C   ST6209C   ST6210C   ST6215C   ST6220C   ST6225C   ST6255C   ST6265C   ST72101   ST72121   ST72212   ST72213   ST72251   ST72272   ST72311   ST72331   ST72371   ST72372   ST72671   ST72751   ST72752   ST7277   ST7_OVER  


HC705E1   HC705JB3   HC705KJ   HC705L5   HC705PL   HC705PLB   HC705X   HC705XX7   HLC705KJ   HRC705KJ   HC05B   HC05BD3   HC05BD5   HC05DX   HC05JB3   HC05KJ   HC05L5   HC05PL   HC05PLB   HC05X   HC705BD3   HC705BD7   HC705C8   HC705C9   HC705DX   HC08   HC08A   HC708MP   708AZ60   908AZ60   HC11E   HC11F1   HC11D3  


18AC   18AC100   18AC75   20AC   20AC100   20AC75   28AC   28AC100   28AC75   28ACINF   SX28AC75   SX48   SX48_52   SX52  


24128-B   24128   24256-A   24256-B   24256   24C01   24C02   24C04   24C08   24C16   24C32   24C64   93C46   93C47   93C56   93C57   X24321   X24640   X24641   X24645  


27128   2716   27256   2732   27512   2764   27C1001   27C1024   27C160   27C2001   27C202   27C256B   27C320   27C322   27C400   27C4001   27C4002   27C405   27C512   27C516   27C64   27C800   27C801   27V101   27V102   27V160   27V201   27V256   27V401   27V402   27V405   27V512   27V800   27V801   87C257  


K4F661611C   K4F661612C   K4F661612D   K4F640411C   K4F640412C   K4F640811C   K4F640812C   K4F640812D   K4F641611C   K4F641612C   K4F641612D   K4F660411C   K4F660412C   K4F660811C   K4F660812C   K4F660812D   HM5165405F   HM5165805   HM5112805   HM5113805   HM5164165   HM5164405F   HM5164805   HM5165165   HB56UW1673E   HB56UW3272   HB52E169   HB52E649E12   HB52F88EM   HB52F89EM   HB52F168EN   HB52F169   HB52F169EN   HB52F649E1   HB52R329   HB52R1289   HB52R2569E2   HB52RD328   HB52RF329E2   HB52RF1289   HB54A2569   HB54A5129   K4E661612D   K4E640411C   K4E640412C   K4E640412D   K4E640811C   K4E640812C   K4E640812D   K4E641611C   K4E641612C   K4E641612D   K4E660411C   K4E660412C   K4E660412D   K4E660811C   K4E660812C   K4E660812D   K4E661611C   K4E661612C   HM5425401B   HM5425801B   HM5212165F   HM5212805F   HM5225165B   HM5225325F   HM5225405B   HM5225645F   HM5225805B   HM5251165B   HM5251405B   HM5251805B   HM5264165   HM5264405   HM5264805   HM5425161B   628511H   6216255H   62W1400H   62W4100H   62W8511H   62W16255H   621400H   624100H   628512B   628512BI   62V8512B   62V16256B   62V16258B   62W8512B   62W8512BI   62W16256B   62W16258B   6264B   6264BI   62256B   628128D   628128DI   658512A   67S36130   62G18256   62G36128   62G36256  

Electronics. Modelling, Analysis and Design.
Physical Process Modeling Team:


DC motor- Types, induced emf, speed-torque relations; Speed control - Armature and field speed control; Ward Leonard control - Constant torque and constant horse power operation - Introduction to high speed drives and modern drives. Characteristics of mechanical system - dynamic equations, components of torque, types of load; Requirements of drives characteristics - multi-quadrant operation; Drive elements, types of motor duty and selection of motor rating.
Principle of phase control - Fundamental relations; Analysis of series and separately excited DC motor with single-phase and three-phase converters - waveforms, performance parameters, performance characteristics. Continuous and discontinuous armature current operations; Current ripple and its effect on performance; Operation with free wheeling diode; Implementation of braking schemes; Drive employing dual converter.
Introduction to time ratio control and frequency modulation; Class A, B, C, D and E chopper controlled DC motor - performance analysis, multi-quadrant control - Chopper based implementation of braking schemes; Multi-phase chopper; Related problems.
Modeling of drive elements - Equivalent circuit, transfer function of self, separately excited DC motors; Linear Transfer function model of power converters; Sensing and feeds back elements - Closed loop speed control - current and speed loops, P, PI and PID controllers - response comparison. Simulation of converter and chopper fed d.c drive.
Phase Locked Loop and micro-computer control of DC drives - Program flow chart for constant horse power and load disturbed operations; Speed detection and gate firing.


Steady state performance equations - Rotating magnetic field - torque production, Equivalent circuit- Variable voltage, constant frequency operation - Variable frequency operation, constant Volt/Hz operation. Drive operating regions, variable stator current operation, different braking methods.
AC voltage controller circuit - six step inverter voltage control-closed loop variable frequency PWM inverter with dynamic braking-CSI fed IM variable frequency drives comparison.
Static rotor resistance control - injection of voltage in the rotor circuit - static scherbius drives - power factor considerations - modified Kramer drives. FIELD ORIENTED CONTROL
Field oriented control of induction machines - Theory - DC drive analogy - Direct and Indirect methods - Flux vector estimation - Direct torque control of Induction Machines - Torque expression with stator and rotor fluxes, DTC control strategy.
Wound field cylindrical rotor motor - Equivalent circuits - performance equations of operation from a voltage source - Power factor control and V curves - starting and braking, self control - Load commutated Synchronous motor drives - Brush and Brushless excitation.

Heat transfer  


heat transfer simulation
  heat transfer transformer movie   heat transfer transformer movie   heat transfer transformer movie

  In discussion of the other basic materials, iron and copper, mention has already been made of the energy losses which their use entails. These, of course, manifest themselves in the form of heat. This results in a rise in temperature of the system, be it core and windings, core frames, tank, or other ancillary parts. These will reach an equilibrium when the heat is being taken away as fast as it is being produced. For the great majority of transformers, this limiting temperature is set by the use of paper insulation, which, if it is to have an acceptable working life, must be limited to somewhere in the region of 100°C. Efficient cooling is therefore essential, and for all but the smallest transformers, this is best provided by a liquid.
  For most transformers mineral oil is the most efficient medium for absorbing heat from the core and the windings and transmitting it, sometimes aided by forced circulation, to the naturally or artificially cooled outer surfaces of the transformer. The heat capacity, or specific heat, and the thermal conductivity of the oil have an important influence on the rate of heat transfer.
  When the resistive and other losses are generated in transformer windings heat is produced. This heat must be transferred into and taken away by the transformer oil. The winding copper retains its mechanical strength up to several hundred degrees Celsius. Transformer oil does not significantly degrade below about 140oC, but paper insulation deteriorates with greatly increasing severity if its temperature rises above about 90oC. The cooling oil flow must, therefore, ensure that the insulation temperature is kept below this figure as far as possible.
  The maximum temperature at which no degradation of paper insulation occurs is about 80oC. It is usually neither economic nor practical, however, to limit the insulation temperature to this level at all times. Insulation life would greatly exceed transformer design life and, since ambient temperatures and applied loads vary, a maximum temperature of 80oC would mean that on many occasions the insulation would be much cooler than this. Thus, apart from premature failure due to a fault, the critical factor in determining the life expectancy of a transformer is the working temperature of the insulation or, more precisely, the temperature of the hottest part of the insulation or hot spot. The designer’s problem is to decide the temperature that the hot spot should be allowed to reach. Various researchers have considered this problem and all of them tend to agree that the rate of deterioration or ageing of paper insulation rapidly increases with increasing temperature.


heat transfer pcb simulation

heat transfer pcb movie   heat transfer pcb movie   heat transfer pcb movie   heat transfer pcb movie   Figure 1   Figure 1

  In situ measurements of conditions such as temperature can be used to infer the quality of the wafers being produced in thermal processes. In many types of thermal processing equipment, temperature is measured using a thermocouple embedded in the wafer holder (or susceptor). A thermocouple is a circuit consisting of a pair of wires made of different metals joined at one end (the “sensing junction”) and terminated at the other end (the “reference junction”) in such a way that the terminals are both at a known reference temperature. Leads from the reference junction to a load resistance (i.e., an indicating meter) complete the thermocouple circuit. Due to the thermoelectric effect (or Seebeck effect), a current is induced in the circuit whenever the sensing and reference junctions are different temperatures. This current varies linearly with the temperature difference between the junctions.
  In some cases (such as in rapid thermal processes), the use of a thermocouple is not possible because there is no susceptor. Alternative temperature sensors used in such situations include thermopiles and optical pyrometers. A thermopile, which also operates via the Seebeck effect, consists of several sensing junctions made of the same material pairs located in close proximity and connected in series in order to multiply their output.
  The second alternative method to the thermocouple is pyrometry. Pyrometers operate by measuring the radiant energy received in a certain band of energies, assuming that the source is a graybody of known emissivity. The input energy can then be converted to a source temperature using the Stefan–Boltzmann relationship. Most commercial systems monitor the mid-infrared band (3–6 m).
  One major issue in using pyrometry is that the effective emissivity of the source must be accurately known. The effective emissivity includes both intrinsic and extrinsic contributions. Intrinsic emissivity is a function of the material, surface finish, temperature, and wavelength. Extrinsic emissivity is affected by the amount of radiant energy from other sources reflected back to the spot being measured (which can increase the apparent temperature). In addition, the presence of multiple layers of different thin-film materials can also alter the apparent emissivity due to interference effects.


heat transfer resistor simulation

heat transfer resistor movie   heat transfer resistor movie   Figure 1

  Measurement, or measuring, is also the most important part of an experiment. Measuring is not absolute, as it does not define a quantity (standard) to be measured. Measuring is a relative effort and is made to compare and to evaluate. To be independent, a comparison requires a measure, a standard unit.
  The art of measuring is at least as old as humanity itself. The human body performs measurements all the time. One of the most basic quantities continuously measured by the human body is the environment temperature. Feeling hot or cold is a consequence of this measuring. Although not descriptive (not quantified with a parameter such as temperature), the natural measuring of the environmental temperature by the human body is nevertheless a relative process. This process is based on a comparison of the environmental temperature with a certain standard, in this case the temperature at which the body feels neitherhot norcold—the null point of human thermal control. In heat transfer, temperature and heat flow are unquestionably the most important quantities to be measured. Other quantities of interest to heat transfer include fluid speed, pressure (force), mechanical stress, electric current, voltage, length, surface area, volume, and displacement. In this chapter the focus is on temperature and heat flow measurements.
  General measuring concepts such as sensitivity, hysteresis, calibration, accuracy, and readability are presented first. Then the discussion turns to statistical concepts such as mean, deviation, standard deviation, normal distribution, Chauvenet’s criterion, and the chi-square test, related to the determination of precision, bias error, and measuring uncertainty. The final section of this chapter is devoted to a brief discussion of some common instruments for measuring temperature or heat flow.
  Among the two possible alternatives for sensing devices, the most common are the contact sensing devices such as thermocouples that measure by physical contact. In general, contact sensing devices are rugged, economical, relatively accurate, and easy to use. Disadvantages commonly associated with contact sensing devices include susceptibility to wear (e.g., breaking of thermocouple junction). They also require accessibility forphysical contact. Because of the contact nature of these devices, they tend to interfere with the medium where measurement is to be taken, frequently affecting the state and the value of the quantity to be measured. The last disadvantage can be a serious problem. For instance, the conductive wires of a thermocouple will always provide a heat path when in contact with the medium where temperature is to be measured. This heat path can modify the state of the medium where temperature is to be measured by adding energy to, or extracting energy from, the medium.


heat transfer transistor simulation

heat transfer transistor movie   heat transfer transistor movie   heat transfer transistor movie   heat transfer transistor movie
  Natural convection is generated by the density difference induced by the temperature differences within a fluid system. Because of the small density variations present in these types of flows, a general incompressible flow approximation is adopted. In most buoyancy-driven convection problems, flow is generated by either a temperature variation or a concentration variation in the fluid system, which leads to local density differences. Therefore, in such flows, a body force term needs to be added to the momentum equations to include the effect of local density differences.
  Mixed convection involves features from both forced and natural flow conditions. The buoyancy effects become comparable to the forced flow effects at small and moderate Reynolds numbers. Since the flow is partly forced, a reference velocity value is normally known (Example: velocity at the inlet of a channel). Therefore, non-dimensional scales of forced convection can be adopted here. However, in mixed convection problems, the buoyancy term needs to be added to the appropriate component of the momentum equation. If we replace 1/P r with Re in the non-dimensional natural convection equations of the previous subsection, we obtain the non-dimensional equations for mixed convection flows. These equations are the same as for the forced convection flow problem except for the body force term, which will be added to the momentum equation in the gravity direction.
  Forced convection heat transfer is induced by forcing a liquid, or gas, over a hot body or surface. Two forced convection problems will be studied in this section. The first problem is the extension of flow through a two-dimensional channel as discussed in the previous section and the second one is of forced convection over a sphere. The difference between the first problem and the one in the previous section is that the top and bottom walls are at a higher temperature than that of the air flowing into the channel.

heat transfer radiator simulation
heat transfer radiator simulation   heat transfer radiator simulation
  heat transfer radiator movie   heat transfer radiator movie   Movie - force convection heat flux

  Many physical situations involve the transfer of heat in a material by conduction and its subsequent dissipation by exchange with a fluid or the environment by convection. The heat sinks used in the electronic industry to dissipate heat from electronic components to the ambient are an example of a conduction–convection system. Other examples include the dissipation of heat in electrical windings to the coolant, the heat exchange process in heat exchangers and the cooling of gas turbine blades in which the temperature of the hot gases is greater than the melting point of the blade material. In Section 3.6, we have already demonstrated the applications of the finite element method for extended surfaces with different cross sections. Also, the problems discussed in the previous section of this chapter include the influence of convective boundary conditions. However, all the problems studied previously in this chapter assumed that the domains were of infinite length. Figure 1 shows various types of fins used in practice. Let us now consider the case of a tapered fin (extended surfaces) with plane surfaces on the top and bottom. The fin also loses heat to the ambient via the tip. The thickness of the fin varies linearly from t2 at the base to t1 at the tip as shown in Figure 2 The width, b, of the fin remains constant along the whole length.
  In Figure 1 and Figure 2, we have discussed steady state heat conduction in which the temperature in a solid body was assumed to be invariant with respect to time. However, many practical heat transfer applications are unsteady (transient) in nature and in such problems the temperature varies with respect to time. For instance, in many components of industrial plants such as boilers, refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment, the heat transfer process is transient during the initial stages of operation. Other transient processes include crystal growth, casting processes, drying, heat transfer associated with the earth’s atmosphere, and many more. It is therefore obvious that the analysis of transient heat conduction is very important.
  Analytical techniques such as variable separation, which are employed to solve transient heat conduction problems, are of limited use (Ozisik 1968), and a solution for practical heat transfer problems by these methods is difficult. Thus, it is essential to develop numerical solution procedures to solve transient heat conduction problems.
  Heat conduction solutions for many geometric shapes of practical interest cannot be found using the charts available for regular geometries (Holman 1989). Because of the timedependent boundary, or interface conditions, prevalent in many transient heat conduction problems, analytical or lumped solutions are also difficult to obtain. In such complex situations, it is essential to develop approximate time-stepping procedures to determine the transient temperature distribution.


Movie 1   Movie 2   Movie 3   Movie 4   Movie 5   Movie 6   Movie 7   Movie 8

Multisim electronics demo   Multisim electronics demo

Multisim electronics demo   Multisim electronics demo

Multisim electronics demo   Multisim electronics demo

Over the past few decades, major advances in the applications & control of electric machinery have occurred as a result of advances in power electronics & microprocessor based control systems. Consequently a much broader spectrum of Electric Machine types can be found in modern applications. This course provides an introduction to the theory of Electro-Mechanical devices & gives emphasis on a physical understanding of fundamental principles behind the operation of Electric Machines.
Polyphase Circuits: Review of Polyphase Circuits, Balanced & Unbalanced Loads, Unbalanced Delta Connected Load, Three Phase Three Wire & Three Phase Four Wire Star Connected Unbalanced Load, Millman's Theorem, Delta/Star & Star/Delta Conversion
Transformers: EMF Equation, Phasor Diagram & Equivalent Circuit, Determination of Losses by Open Circuit Test and Short Circuit Test, Sumpner's Test, Regulation & Efficiency, Special Constructional Features of Three Phase Transformers, Connections, Labeling of Terminals, Specifications, , Phase Groups, Harmonics & Transients , Parallel Operation, Three Winding Transformers, Phase Conversion, On Load Tap Changers, Ratio And Polarity Tests, Phasing Out Test, Instrument Transformers: Theory, expression for ratio and phase angle errors, design consideration and testing Auto Transformer, Pulse Transformer, Isolation Transformer
DC Generators: Constructional Features, Basic Principle of Working, EMF Equation, Armature Windings, Types, Characteristics and Applications, Armature Reaction, Commutation
DC Motors: Principles of Working, Significance of Back Emf, Torque Equation, Separately & Self Excited Motors, Characteristics and Selection of DC Motors for Various Applications, Starting, Speed Control, Various Tests to find Losses and Efficiency

(1) M.G. Say,Performance & design of AC machines, CBS publishers & distributors, Delhi, 3rd edition
(2) A.E. Clayton & N.N. Nancock, The Performance & design of DC machines CBS publications & distributors, Delhi, 3rd edition
(3) Nagrath I.J.& Kothari D. P., Electric Machines, Tata McGraw Hill , New Delhi, 2nd edition
(4) Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd, Transformers, Tata McGraw Hill
(5) Syed A. Nasar,Electric Machines & Power Systems, Volume I , Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi
(6) A. E. Fitzerald & C. Kingsley & S.D. Umans , Electric Machinery Tata McGraw Hill ,New Delhi ,5th edition
(7)Dr. P.S. Bhimbra, Generalized theory of Electrical Machines, Khanna publishers, Delhi, 5th edition

PIC Microcontrollers in Examples

Clock (PIC16F628)

Power Supply

  IX1779CE   MA2830   MA2831   STK730-080   STK7348   STK73410
  STR10006   STR11006   STR50103A   STR50115B   STR54041   STR54041S
  STR6307   STRD1816   STRD6004X   STR-M6549   STRD6601   TDA4601B
  TDA4605   TEA1039   UAA4006   AN3814K   AN3826NK   BA6209
  BA6218   BA6219B  BA6229   BA6238AU  BA6239A   BA6418N
  BA6435S   BA6439P  HA13403   HA13409