Kinetic energy is identical to electromagnetic energy

Peter Rashkov Penchev

1. Introduction

The nature of kinetic energy, as being something material, defies proper definition, although the law of conservation and conversion of energy postulates that: à) energy is something material and therefore, being material, it is eternal (it cannot be converted into nothing or be created out of nothing); the same holds true for all material objects; b) energy has one and only nature (of one and only kind) since if it had more than one nature (kind) it would be impossible to determine to which of its multiple natures refers the law postulating its eternity, and ñ) energy can be converted into various structures not only when it is bound to (when it is carried by) a certain object (body) but also in the process of conveyance from one object (body) to another.

Energy is characterized by the following properties: à) it can be conveyed from one body to another; b) it is inseparable from movement (speed v); c) it increases bodies’ masses; d) it is not visible, but its existence is ascertained through the movement (shift) of bodies.

According to Isaac Newton, energy dW is measured by work , which equals to the product of force  multiplied by distance (pathway) . The mathematical expression of this definition is:

[11]

I.e. force F equals to the quantity of energy  which is conveyed from one body to another during the interaction along a unit of distance (pathway) (r=1). The same interpretation of the force results also from its dimensionality:

;   [1–2]

It is seen (apparent) from the above that the kinetic energy of one object (body) has a material nature; however, since its material nature is not directly perceivable by the human senses, but is ascertained indirectly through the movement of the bodies, it follows that energy is material only when the matter is in its field form and when energy is bound to a body. What energy is like in the process of transfer from one body to another is a different question.

2. About the model for studying the kinetic energy.

Any material object is part of the total united material resource of the Nature, therefore, on the one hand, any object bears its specific, individual properties, on the other hand, however, any object also bears the common, universal properties of the united resource, which unconditionally includes its energy and its mass, as well as its bondage to the fields which are its useful resource. Currently, it is electrons (electron with electrical charge qe = 1.6.10-19C < 0 and positron qe = 1.6.10-19 C < 0) that are assumed to be the simplest form of an object, with the least quantity of resource and the simplest, but still unknown structure of structural elements of unknown substantial nature, out of which the objects are formed, therefore, electrons are an appropriate model to study. In fact, electrons are carriers of energies, mass and fields (electrostatic, magnetic and gravitational), whose regularities are known and they are elements and initial resource in various systems, such as:

*from electrons are generated photons, whose energies are only kinetic.

*they, as electrons in orbitals around the nucleus, are structural elements of atoms.

*During interaction between accelerated electron and positron, their kinetic energies are being restructured (converted) into protons and neutrons out of which the nuclei of atoms are structured (formed).

3. Kinetic energy of electrons.

Electrons generate electrostatic, magnetic and gravitational fields which are characterized by the density of energies and masses, and the electrons as a whole – by energies and masses.

Electrostatic: field, energy and mass of the electron. At distance  from the electron there is electrostatic field

[3.1–1]

Where e0 is the dielectric constant of the vacuum.

The electrostatic field has density of energy and mass

[3.1–2]

and electrostatic energy WeE and mass meo with the electron at rest

[3.1–3]

where: reo is the calculable (classical) radius of the electron.

Magnetic field of the electron at speed V<< c

Magnetic field of the electron at speed is:

[3.1–4]

And the densities of energy and mass are:

[3.1–5]

Where: mî is the magnetic constant of the vacuum,  is the acceleration of the electron.

(3.1-4) clearly shows that in order to obtain electronic magnetic field, it is necessary that force F should act upon it, and in time t this force should impart acceleration  and speed  to its mass meo.

[3.1–6]

and then it becomes apparent that  is function of force

[3.1–7]

The magnetic energy of the electron at (3.1-3,b) for meo and speed  is

Or, in order that force  can accelerate it to speed V so that its magnetic field  can be generated, the force must impart energy WHe to the electron, whose value is equal to the kinetic energy Wke of the electron. Since force  imparts only energy WHe = WÊå and the material carrier of that energy is the magnetic field of the electron, it follows

The conclusion

The kinetic energy of the electron is identical to its magnetic energy.

The magnetic field of the electron at me¹const. and v<<c.

When an electron is moving at speed V<c (on condition that radiation is ignored) in a point at distance , there exist the density of the masses: of the electrostatic field Å-rå (3.1-2) and of the magnetic field H-rH (3.1-5) or the total density of the mass is rå = rÅ + rÍ, where only rÍ is function of speed V.

The density of the mass rå generates momentum . The differential of the density of the energy in that point is:

[3.1–9]

For the differential of density of the mass in that point, it follows

[3.1–10]

or

[3.1–11]

The integration of (3.1-11) is with the limiting conditions

[3.1–12]

[3.1–13]

And it is obtained:

[3.114]

When We and re are integrated into the volume of the electrostatic field of the electron – from re0 to ¥, the full mass me  and energy We of the electron are obtained.

[3.115]

And the magnetic mass mHe and energy WHe are:

[3.116]

Therefore, the above conclusion 3.1.2.1.3 also holds true here with me ¹ const and V < c.

4. Kinetic energies of the electron in other conditions.

Annihilation of the electron at rest.

In interaction (annihilation) of electron åî- with positron åî+, they are restructured into photons g with relevant energies

a) åî- + åî+ = 2.g;

b) 2me.c2 = 2hv = 2Wf ;      [4.11]

I.e. the internal energies Weo = mlo.c2 of the electrons for time t have been restructured into electromagnetic (kinetic) energies of photons Wf, momentum  or force .

[4.1–2]

Where: h is Plank’s constant, and n is frequency

Such kind of kinetic energy of photons, emitted from the Sun, generated and still maintains life and living matter on Earth.

Collision of gamma photon gr with the atom nucleus.

When gamma photon gr collides with the nucleus of the atom, electron åî- and positron åî+ are generated

[4.13]

or the electronic (kinetic) energy of the gamma photon after the collision has been restructured into tangible elementary particles, electrons.

Interaction of accelerated (by kinetic energy) electrons åî- and åî+.

When accelerated electrons åî- and åî+ interact, depending on the conditions, their kinetic energies are restructured into protons (proton ð and antiproton ) or neutron (neutron n into antineutron ), as follows:

[4.1–4]

Whence, after their kinetic energies are described, their masses are obtained depending on the masses of the electrons (3.1-1.3) me0=qc2.ke.

[4.1–5]

I.e. the kinetic (electromagnetic) energies of the electrons have been restructured (converted) into tangible particles.

5. Conveyance of kinetic energy from one object to another.

There is a well known experiment in physics with two identical balls. When ball 1, moving at speed V1 collides with central ball 2, which is at rest (V2 = 0), after the collision ball 1 remains at rest (V1 = 0) on the spot of the collision, and ball 2 starts moving at speed V2/ = V1.

The effect with two electrons is analogous.

The explanation of the conveyance of kinetic energy of electron 1, which, according to (3.1-8) is magnetic energy, is that at acceleration à¹0 the electromagnetic (kinetic) energy of electron 1 is emitted at power P proportional to à2

[51]

and for the time of the collision t the whole energy is emitted

WHe = WKe = P.t;    [5–2]

and is absorbed by electron 2, which starts moving at V2/ = V1.

I.e. the kinetic (electromagnetic) energy is transported as independent energy in the form of electromagnetic waves (photons)

6. General conclusion.

Kinetic energies are electromagnetic energies

Kinetic energies can, in certain conditions, be restructured (converted) into tangible particles and vice versa, tangible particle can be restructured into field ones, i.e. into kinetic energy.

Kinetic energy is conveyed from one object to another in the form of electromagnetic waves (photons).