Kinetic energy is identical to
electromagnetic energy

Peter Rashkov
Penchev

**1. Introduction**

The nature of
kinetic energy, as being something material, defies proper definition, although
the law of conservation and conversion of energy postulates that: à) energy is
something material and therefore, being material, it is eternal (it cannot be
converted into nothing or be created out of nothing); the same holds true for
all material objects; b) energy has one and only nature (of one and only kind)
since if it had more than one nature (kind) it would be impossible to determine
to which of its multiple natures refers the law postulating its eternity, and
ñ) energy can be converted into various structures not only when it is bound to
(when it is carried by) a certain object (body) but also in the process of
conveyance from one object (body) to another.

Energy is
characterized by the following properties: à) it can be conveyed from one body
to another; b) it is inseparable from movement (speed v); c) it increases
bodies’ masses; d) it is not visible, but its existence is ascertained through
the movement (shift) of bodies.

According to Isaac
Newton, energy **dW** is measured by
work , which
equals to the product of force multiplied by distance (pathway) . The
mathematical expression of this definition is:

[1–1]

I.e. force F equals
to the quantity of energy which is conveyed from one body to another
during the interaction along a unit of distance (pathway) (r=1). The same
interpretation of the force results also from its dimensionality:

; [1–2]

It is seen
(apparent) from the above that the kinetic energy of one object (body) has a
material nature; however, since its material nature is not directly perceivable
by the human senses, but is ascertained indirectly through the movement of the
bodies, it follows that energy is material only when the matter is in its field
form and when energy is bound to a body. What energy is like in the process of
transfer from one body to another is a different question.

**2. About the model for studying the kinetic energy. **

Any material object
is part of the total united material resource of the Nature, therefore, on the
one hand, any object bears its specific, individual properties, on the other
hand, however, any object also bears the common, universal properties of the
united resource, which unconditionally includes its energy and its mass, as
well as its bondage to the fields which are its useful resource. Currently, it
is electrons (electron with electrical charge q_{e} = 1.6.10^{-19}C
< 0 and positron q_{e} = 1.6.10^{-19 }C < 0) that are
assumed to be the simplest form of an object, with the least quantity of
resource and the simplest, but still unknown structure of structural elements
of unknown substantial nature, out of which the objects are formed, therefore,
electrons are an appropriate model to study. In fact, electrons are carriers of
energies, mass and fields (electrostatic, magnetic and gravitational), whose
regularities are known and they are elements and initial resource in various
systems, such as:

*from electrons are generated
photons, whose energies are only kinetic.

*they, as electrons in
orbitals around the nucleus, are structural elements of atoms.

*During interaction between
accelerated electron and positron, their kinetic energies are being
restructured (converted) into protons and neutrons out of which the nuclei of
atoms are structured (formed).

**3. Kinetic energy of electrons. **

**General
assumptions about electrons. **

Electrons generate
electrostatic, magnetic and gravitational fields which are characterized by the
density of energies and masses, and the electrons as a whole – by energies and
masses.

**Electrostatic:** field, energy and
mass of the electron. At distance from the electron there is electrostatic field

[3.1–1]

Where e_{0} is the dielectric
constant of the vacuum.

The electrostatic field has density
of energy and mass

[3.1–2]

and electrostatic energy W_{eE}
and mass m_{eo} with the electron at rest

[3.1–3]

where: r_{eo} is the
calculable (classical) radius of the electron.

**Magnetic
field of the electron at speed V<< c **

Magnetic field of the electron
at speed is:

[3.1–4]

And the densities of energy
and mass are:

[3.1–5]

Where: m_{î} is the magnetic
constant of the vacuum, is the acceleration of the electron.

(3.1-4) clearly shows that in
order to obtain electronic magnetic field, it is necessary that force F should
act upon it, and in time t this force should impart acceleration and speed to its mass m_{eo}.

[3.1–6]

and then it becomes apparent
that is function of force

[3.1–7]

The magnetic energy of the
electron at (3.1-3,b) for m_{eo} and speed is

Or, in order that force can accelerate it to speed V so that its
magnetic field can be generated, the force must impart energy
W_{He }to the electron, whose value is equal to the kinetic energy W_{ke}
of the electron. Since force imparts only energy W_{He} = W_{Êå}
and the material carrier of that energy is the magnetic field of the electron,
it follows

**The
conclusion **

The kinetic energy of the
electron is identical to its magnetic energy.

**The
magnetic field of the electron at m _{e}**

When an electron is moving at
speed V<c (on condition that radiation is ignored) in a point at distance , there
exist the density of the masses: of the electrostatic field Å-r_{å} (3.1-2) and of the
magnetic field H-r_{H} (3.1-5) or the
total density of the mass is r_{å} = r_{Å} + r_{Í}, where only r_{Í} is function of
speed V.

The density of the mass r_{å} generates momentum
. The
differential of the density of the energy in that point is:

[3.1–9]

For the differential of
density of the mass in that point, it follows

[3.1–10]

or

[3.1–11]

The integration of (3.1-11) is
with the limiting conditions

[3.1–12]

[3.1–13]

And it is obtained:

[3.1–14]

When W_{e}
and r_{e} are integrated
into the volume of the electrostatic field of the electron – from r_{e0}
to ¥, the full mass m_{e
} and energy W_{e} of the
electron are obtained.

[3.1–15]

And the magnetic
mass m_{He} and energy W_{He} are:

[3.1–16]

Therefore, the above
conclusion 3.1.2.1.3 also holds true here with m_{e} ¹ const and V <
c.

**4. Kinetic energies of the electron in other
conditions. **

**Annihilation of the electron at rest. **

In interaction
(annihilation) of electron å_{î}^{-} with positron å_{î}^{+},
they are restructured into photons g with relevant
energies

a) å_{î}^{-}
+ å_{î}^{+} = 2.g;

b) 2m_{e}.c^{2}
= 2hv = 2W_{f }; [4.1–1]

I.e. the internal
energies W_{eo} = m_{lo}.c^{2} of the electrons for
time t have been
restructured into electromagnetic (kinetic) energies of photons W_{f},
momentum or force .

[4.1–2]

Where: h is Plank’s
constant, and n is frequency

Such kind of
kinetic energy of photons, emitted from the Sun, generated and still maintains
life and living matter on Earth.

**Collision of gamma photon ****g**_{r}** with
the atom nucleus. **

When gamma photon g_{r} collides with the
nucleus of the atom, electron å_{î}^{-} and positron å_{î}^{+}
are generated

[4.1–3]

or the electronic
(kinetic) energy of the gamma photon after the collision has been restructured
into tangible elementary particles, electrons.

**Interaction of accelerated (by kinetic energy)
electrons å _{î}^{-} and å_{î}^{+}. **

When accelerated
electrons å_{î}^{-} and å_{î}^{+} interact,
depending on the conditions, their kinetic energies are restructured into
protons (proton ð and antiproton ) or neutron
(neutron n into antineutron ), as
follows:

[4.1–4]

Whence, after their
kinetic energies are described, their masses are obtained depending on the
masses of the electrons (3.1-1.3) m_{e0}=q_{c}^{2}.k_{e}.

[4.1–5]

I.e.
the kinetic (electromagnetic) energies of the electrons have been restructured
(converted) into tangible particles.

**5. Conveyance of kinetic energy from one object to
another. **

There is a well
known experiment in physics with two identical balls. When ball 1, moving at
speed V_{1} collides with central ball 2, which is at rest (V_{2}
= 0), after the collision ball 1 remains at rest (V_{1} = 0) on the
spot of the collision, and ball 2 starts moving at speed V_{2}^{/}
= V_{1}.

The effect with two
electrons is analogous.

The explanation of
the conveyance of kinetic energy of electron 1, which, according to (3.1-8) is
magnetic energy, is that at acceleration à¹0 the electromagnetic
(kinetic) energy of electron 1 is emitted at power P proportional to à^{2}

[5–1]

and for the time of
the collision t the whole energy
is emitted

W_{He} = W_{Ke} = P.t; [5–2]

and is absorbed by
electron 2, which starts moving at V_{2}^{/} = V_{1}.

I.e. the kinetic
(electromagnetic) energy is transported as independent energy in the form of
electromagnetic waves (photons)

**6. General conclusion.**

**Kinetic energies are electromagnetic energies **

**Kinetic energies can, in certain conditions, be
restructured (converted) into tangible particles and vice versa, tangible
particle can be restructured into field ones, i.e. into kinetic energy.**

**Kinetic energy is conveyed from one object to another
in the form of electromagnetic waves (photons).**