Tcl_InitHashTable, Tcl_DeleteHashTable, Tcl_CreateHashEn
try, Tcl_DeleteHashEntry, Tcl_FindHashEntry, Tcl_GetHash
Value, Tcl_SetHashValue, Tcl_GetHashKey, Tcl_FirstHashEn
try, Tcl_NextHashEntry, Tcl_HashStats - procedures to man
age hash tables
Tcl_CreateHashEntry(tablePtr, key, newPtr)
Tcl_HashTable *tablePtr (in) Address of hash
(for all proce
this must have
by previous call
table. Must be
or an integer
value greater than
char *key (in) Key to use for
probe into table.
Exact form depends
on keyType used to
int *newPtr (out) The word at *new
Ptr is set to 1 if
a new entry was
created and 0 if
there was already
an entry for key.
Tcl_HashEntry *entryPtr (in) Pointer to hash
ClientData value (in) New value to
assign to hash
table entry. Need
not have type
must fit in same
space as Client
Tcl_HashSearch *searchPtr (in) Pointer to record
to use to keep
track of progress
in enumerating all
the entries in a
A hash table consists of zero or more entries, each con
sisting of a key and a value. Given the key for an entry,
the hashing routines can very quickly locate the entry,
and hence its value. There may be at most one entry in a
hash table with a particular key, but many entries may
have the same value. Keys can take one of three forms:
strings, one-word values, or integer arrays. All of the
keys in a given table have the same form, which is speci
fied when the table is initialized.
in the same space as a ``char *'' pointer. Values for
hash table entries are managed entirely by clients, not by
the hash module itself. Typically each entry's value is a
pointer to a data structure managed by client code.
Hash tables grow gracefully as the number of entries
increases, so that there are always less than three
entries per hash bucket, on average. This allows for fast
lookups regardless of the number of entries in a table.
Tcl_InitHashTable initializes a structure that describes a
new hash table. The space for the structure is provided
by the caller, not by the hash module. The value of key
Type indicates what kinds of keys will be used for all
entries in the table. KeyType must have one of the fol
TCL_STRING_KEYS Keys are null-terminated ASCII
strings. They are passed to
hashing routines using the
address of the first character of
TCL_ONE_WORD_KEYS Keys are single-word values;
they are passed to hashing rou
tines and stored in hash table
entries as ``char *'' values.
The pointer value is the key; it
need not (and usually doesn't)
actually point to a string.
other If keyType is not TCL_STRING_KEYS
or TCL_ONE_WORD_KEYS, then it
must be an integer value greater
than 1. In this case the keys
will be arrays of ``int'' values,
where keyType gives the number of
ints in each key. This allows
structures to be used as keys.
All keys must have the same size.
Array keys are passed into hash
ing functions using the address
of the first int in the array.
Tcl_DeleteHashTable deletes all of the entries in a hash
table and frees up the memory associated with the table's
bucket array and entries. It does not free the actual
table structure (pointed to by tablePtr), since that mem
ory is assumed to be managed by the client. Tcl_Delete
HashTable also does not free or otherwise manipulate the
values of the hash table entries. If the entry values
point to dynamically-allocated memory, then it is the
Tcl_CreateHashEntry locates the entry corresponding to a
particular key, creating a new entry in the table if there
wasn't already one with the given key. If an entry
already existed with the given key then *newPtr is set to
zero. If a new entry was created, then *newPtr is set to
a non-zero value and the value of the new entry will be
set to zero. The return value from Tcl_CreateHashEntry is
a pointer to the entry, which may be used to retrieve and
modify the entry's value or to delete the entry from the
Tcl_DeleteHashEntry will remove an existing entry from a
table. The memory associated with the entry itself will
be freed, but the client is responsible for any cleanup
associated with the entry's value, such as freeing a
structure that it points to.
Tcl_FindHashEntry is similar to Tcl_CreateHashEntry except
that it doesn't create a new entry if the key doesn't
exist; instead, it returns NULL as result.
Tcl_GetHashValue and Tcl_SetHashValue are used to read and
write an entry's value, respectively. Values are stored
and retrieved as type ``ClientData'', which is large
enough to hold a pointer value. On almost all machines
this is large enough to hold an integer value too.
Tcl_GetHashKey returns the key for a given hash table
entry, either as a pointer to a string, a one-word (``char
*'') key, or as a pointer to the first word of an array of
integers, depending on the keyType used to create a hash
table. In all cases Tcl_GetHashKey returns a result with
type ``char *''. When the key is a string or array, the
result of Tcl_GetHashKey points to information in the
table entry; this information will remain valid until the
entry is deleted or its table is deleted.
Tcl_FirstHashEntry and Tcl_NextHashEntry may be used to
scan all of the entries in a hash table. A structure of
type ``Tcl_HashSearch'', provided by the client, is used
to keep track of progress through the table.
Tcl_FirstHashEntry initializes the search record and
returns the first entry in the table (or NULL if the table
is empty). Each subsequent call to Tcl_NextHashEntry
returns the next entry in the table or NULL if the end of
the table has been reached. A call to Tcl_FirstHashEntry
followed by calls to Tcl_NextHashEntry will return each of
the entries in the table exactly once, in an arbitrary
order. It is unadvisable to modify the structure of the
table, e.g. by creating or deleting entries, while the
search is in progress.
overall information about a hash table, such as the number
of entries it contains, the number of buckets in its hash
array, and the utilization of the buckets. It is the
caller's responsibility to free the result string by pass
ing it to ckfree.
The header file tcl.h defines the actual data structures
used to implement hash tables. This is necessary so that
clients can allocate Tcl_HashTable structures and so that
macros can be used to read and write the values of
entries. However, users of the hashing routines should
never refer directly to any of the fields of any of the
hash-related data structures; use the procedures and
macros defined here.
hash table, key, lookup, search, value