chmod, fchmod - change permissions of a file
int chmod(const char *path, mode_t mode);
int fchmod(int fildes, mode_t mode);
The mode of the file given by path or referenced by fildes
Modes are specified by or'ing the following:
S_ISUID 04000 set user ID on execution
S_ISGID 02000 set group ID on execution
S_ISVTX 01000 sticky bit
00400 read by owner
00200 write by owner
00100 execute/search by owner
S_IRGRP 00040 read by group
S_IWGRP 00020 write by group
S_IXGRP 00010 execute/search by group
S_IROTH 00004 read by others
S_IWOTH 00002 write by others
S_IXOTH 00001 execute/search by others
The effective UID of the process must be zero or must
match the owner of the file.
If the effective UID of the process is not zero and the
group of the file does not match the effective group ID of
the process or one of its supplementary group IDs, the
S_ISGID bit will be turned off, but this will not cause an
error to be returned.
execution bits may be turned off if a file is written. On
some file systems, only the super-user can set the sticky
bit, which may have a special meaning (e.g., for directo
ries, a file can only be deleted by the owner or the
On NFS file systems, restricting the permissions will
immediately influence already open files, because the
access control is done on the server, but open files are
maintained by the client. Widening the permissions may be
delayed for other clients if attribute caching is enabled
On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned,
and errno is set appropriately.
Depending on the file system, other errors can be
returned. The more general errors for chmod are listed
EPERM The effective UID does not match the owner of the
file, and is not zero.
EROFS The named file resides on a read-only file system.
EFAULT path points outside your accessible address space.
path is too long.
ENOENT The file does not exist.
ENOMEM Insufficient kernel memory was available.
A component of the path prefix is not a directory.
EACCES Search permission is denied on a component of the
ELOOP Too many symbolic links were encountered in resolv
EIO An I/O error occurred.
The general errors for fchmod are listed below:
EBADF The file descriptor fildes is not valid.
EIO See above.
The chmod call conforms to SVr4, SVID, POSIX, X/OPEN,
4.4BSD. SVr4 documents EINTR, ENOLINK and EMULTIHOP
returns, but no ENOMEM. POSIX.1 does not document EFAULT,
ENOMEM, ELOOP or EIO error conditions, or the macros
S_IREAD, S_IWRITE and S_IEXEC.
The fchmod call conforms to 4.4BSD and SVr4. SVr4 docu
ments additional EINTR and ENOLINK error conditions.
POSIX requires the fchmod function if at least one of
_POSIX_MAPPED_FILES and _POSIX_SHARED_MEMORY_OBJECTS is
defined, and documents additional ENOSYS and EINVAL error
conditions, but does not document EIO.
POSIX and X/OPEN do not document the sticky bit.
open(2), chown(2), execve(2), stat(2)